no Atsvešotas domāšanas izstrādāšanas klases individuālā dalībnieka nolikuma:
Viņam nemitīgi jācenšas pārtraukt uztvert jebkādus negatīvus faktorus, kas darbojas - vienalga, no sabiedrības puses, no tuviem vai tāliem cilvēkiem un apstākļiem - kā vērstus personiski pret viņu, bet jāsaskata tajos tikai šķērslis saviem prāta pūliņiem, un šķēršļa cēlonis - sevī pašā. Tā ir Cēlā Cenšanās.
Viņam jākultivē sevī pilnīga vienaldzība pret to, kā viņa rīcību vai dzīves veidu - pozitīvi vai negatīvi- vērtē citi cilvēki. Jo viņa rīcība ir viņa darbs ar savu paša domāšanu, bet viņa dzīves veids - ne vairāk kā mainīgs tēls, kad aktieris vai āksts spēlē sevis paša lomu. Viņa ikdienas lozungam jābūt "lascia dir gente" ('lai ļaudis runā', Dante). Viņš saskata sava sociālā statusa nereālumu un nerūpējas par savu etoloģisko statusu. Tā ir Cēlā Vienaldzība.
(ņemts no Rīgas Laiks)
1. Платонизм. Я вспомнил! У меня есть пальцы!
2. Неоплатонизм. У меня есть пальцы! Но это вспомнил не я...
3. Атомизм. Пальцы есть, но только очень маленькие, и их очень много.
4. Киники. Пальцы есть. Но зачем?...
5. Стоицизм. Пальцы неизбежны.
6. Иудаизм. Мои пальцы - всем пальцам пальцы!
7. Зороастризм. Есть пальцы левые, есть пальцы правые, и их поровну.
8. Индуизм. Каждому пальцу - по карме!
9. Буддизм. Пальцы бренны - так на фиг они нужны?...
10. Конфуцианство. Пальцы. Просто пальцы.
11. Даосизм. От пальцев никуда не денешься.
12. Христианство. Пальцев пять, но ладонь-то одна!...
13. Христианская ересь. А пальцев-то не пять!...
14. Средневековая философия. Пальцы непостижимы.
15. Философия Возрождения. А пальцы-то есть!
16. Ислам. Нет пальцев кроме моих.
17. Сенсуализм. Если ударить по пальцам и будет больно, то они есть, а если не больно - то их нет.
18. Идеализм. Пальцы есть, потому что я думаю, что они есть.
19. Субъективный идеализм. Вот перестану думать о пальцах - и они исчезнут!
20. Агностицизм. Пальцы-то есть, но вот поди это докажи...
21. Материализм. Пальцы есть, потому-то я о них и думаю.
22. Диалектический материализм. Единство и борьба правых и левых пальцев.
23. Рационализм. Пальцы есть. Их не может не быть.
24. Скептицизм. Поди разберись в этих пальцах!
25. Детерминизм. Это смотря какие пальцы...
26. Просвещение. А что ты сделал для своих пальцев?!
27. Гегельянство. Пальцы есть!!! Но непонятно - как?!
28.Ницшеанство. Не стоит долго глядеть на свои пальцы, иначе однажды они взглянут на тебя.
29.Марксизм. Это как два пальца.
30.Марксизм-ленинизм. Это как два пальца об асфальт.
31.Иррационализм. А есть ли пальцы?...
32.Позитивизм. Пальцы пальцами, однако...
33.Экзистенциализм. Где-то у меня были пальцы...
Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or askesis, see ascetic). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of Eastern meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions, hypomnemata, and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.
Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of these things have come upon them through ignorance of real good and ill... I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together...
Below is a selection of quotations by major Stoic philosophers illustrating major Stoic beliefs:
* "Freedom is secured not by the fulfilling of one's desires, but by the removal of desire." (iv.1.175)
* "Where is the good? In the will. Where is the evil? In the will. Where is neither of them? In those things that are independent of the will." (ii.16.1)
* "Man is disturbed not by things, but by the views he takes of them." (Ench. 5)
* "If, therefore, any be unhappy, let him remember that he is unhappy by reason of himself alone." (iii.24.2)
* "I am formed by nature for my own good: I am not formed for my own evil." (iii.24.83)
* "Permit nothing to cleave to you that is not your own; nothing to grow to you that may give you agony when it is torn away." (iv.1.112)
* "Get rid of the judgment, get rid of the 'I am hurt,' you are rid of the hurt itself." (viii.40)
* "Everything is right for me, which is right for you, O Universe. Nothing for me is too early or too late, which comes in due time for you. Everything is fruit to me which your seasons bring, O Nature. From you are all things, in you are all things, to you all things return." (iv.23)
* "If you work at that which is before you, following right reason seriously, vigorously, calmly, without allowing anything else to distract you, but keeping your divine part pure, as if you were bound to give it back immediately; if you hold to this, expecting nothing, but satisfied to live now according to nature, speaking heroic truth in every word which you utter, you will live happy. And there is no man able to prevent this." (iii.12)
* "How ridiculous and how strange to be surprised at anything which happens in life!" (xii.13)
* "Outward things cannot touch the soul, not in the least degree; nor have they admission to the soul, nor can they turn or move the soul; but the soul turns and moves itself alone." (iv.3)
* "Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also" (vi.19)
* "Or is it your reputation that's bothering you? But look at how soon we're all forgotten. The abyss of endless time that swallows it all. The emptiness of those applauding hands. ." (iv.3)
Seneca the Younger:
* "The point is, not how long you live, but how nobly you live." (Ep. 101.15)
* "That which Fortune has not given, she cannot take away." (Ep. 59.18)
* "Let Nature deal with matter, which is her own, as she pleases; let us be cheerful and brave in the face of everything, reflecting that it is nothing of our own that perishes." (De Provid.)
* "Virtue is nothing else than right reason." (Ep. 66.32)
Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos). A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individual’s ethical and moral well-being: "Virtue consists in a will which is in agreement with Nature." This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy", and to accept even slaves as "equals of other men, because all alike are sons of God."
The word 'stoic' has come to mean 'unemotional' or indifferent to pain, because Stoic ethics taught freedom from 'passion' by following 'reason.' The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions, rather they sought to transform them by a resolute 'askēsis' which enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm. Logic, reflection, and concentration were the methods of such self-discipline.
'Follow where reason leads'.
The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are wisdom (Sophia), courage (Andreia), justice (Dikaiosyne), and temperance (Sophrosyne), a classification derived from the teachings of Plato.
If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason which would lead to the conclusion of kindness. If they are unhappy, it is because they have forgotten how nature actually functions — unhappiness is having one's unrealistic expectations of reality go unfulfilled.
Stoic philosophy was developed in Athens in the third century bc, and reached the peak of its popularity among the upper classes of Rome during the first century bc and the first century ad. The Stoic view of knowledge is empirical; knowledge comes to us from the world through ‘appearances’, which are impressed on our minds. Reason, seen as the quintessentially human characteristic, enables us to understand the world; it is possible to form a community of those who use reason, which will be superior to any secular community. While in pursuit of this ideal, Stoics did not always withdraw from participation in political life; the Roman Stoic Seneca served in the Roman senate and influenced the emperor Nero, although in later life he moved away from Rome to concentrate on writing.
Stoicism denied the importance of all bodily conditions, and emotions were always regarded as bad. The only factor seen as essential to human happiness was virtue, all else in life having significance only as an opportunity to demonstrate that one possesses virtue. Seneca claimed that one could demonstrate virtue equally well through pleasure or through pain, whether enjoying a banquet or submitting to torture. Since all bodily experience equally provided an opportunity to show virtue, no experience was to be deliberately sought out over another. This contrasted with other philosophical approaches; for example, Epicureanism, which regarded pleasure as the goal of life. For the Stoic, poverty and detachment from the world were not seen as essential for the achievement of the good life, nor need worldly wealth be abandoned in the quest for virtue.
In the treatise De Officiis (On Duties), written after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 bc, the Roman politician and philosopher Cicero gave a Stoic account of the correct use of the body as part of his advice to his son — and to the Roman governing classes in general — on how to make moral decisions and to live in the best way possible. As a manual for the upper classes, this text was highly influential in Western political and social thought. Cicero says that both the mind and the body should be trained from childhood into moderate and appropriate behaviour, and this should be expressed through every action — there being a seemly way to stand, walk, or sit. Nature, Cicero argues, has constructed the body so that the most honourable parts are the most visible. Sane people mirror Nature's wisdom in keeping out of sight the parts Nature has hidden away, and in performing bodily functions in private. Moving too slowly is seen as effeminate: hurrying around makes someone out of breath, thus distorting the face. Anger, pleasure, and fear equally transform the faces, voices, and gestures of those experiencing them: the ideal is to control the body, avoid excessive gestures, and follow a moderate way of life. While recommending following ‘Nature’, Cicero also recommends training the body in such a way that one's natural faults are played down; presentation of self can thus be achieved in a way which deceives the onlooker.
- Music:armin van buuren - asot - 278